Fourth international congress of Quality Management in systems of Education and Training (CIMQUSEF2007)

Venue: Casablanca

Location: Casablanca, Morocco

Event Date/Time: Apr 17, 2007 End Date/Time: Apr 19, 2007
Paper Submission Date: Dec 29, 2006
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Description

The higher education remains in the heart of all the debates relating to education, everywhere in the world. It has more and more a role of essential lever of development, especially in an economy of the knowledge based on research and the innovation. The studies show for example that the OECD countries where the individuals follow one year of higher studies additional can, with time, to increase their productivity and their economic output from 3 to 6 %. The modern society needs more and more highly qualified competencies. Those should constitute the natural outputs of the universities, but this remains to be shown. The request for the high qualifications increases more quickly than the offer of the university institutions. Even if the higher education continues to feed the modern society of its elements of value, it pains to follow the rhythm imposed by the evolution which the world knows. . On this subject the example of Europe is edifying, it is not yet the knowledge economy the most competitive and the most dynamic of the world like wanted it the Summit of Lisbon in 2000.

To reduce this gap between the demand of the knowledge society and the supply of the higher education, several solutions are adopted by several countries: creation of universities of elite, alignment of those on the model of the Large Schools, management of the universities according to laws' of the market while preserving the statute of education like public property, introduction of the standards of competition between universities and application of accountability principles.

The congress will offer to the participants the advisability of examining the role of the higher education and research in the construction of the knowledge based society. It will also enable them to propose the policies and the mechanisms to be set up to achieve such a goal.

With this intention, the congress will try to answer the following question:

How the higher education and research can contribute to take up the challenges of the knowledge society?

The participants, teachers, researchers, specialists in education, political actors, socio-economic actors, institutional leaders and expert of quality, are invited to present the results of their research and their ideas on the following topics.



1. Higher education between efficiency and equity

One of the major challenges of the higher education decision makers is to improve the performances of this one while reducing the cost of its operations. It is again the problem of the efficiency which is posed, but its resolution is not easy because it poses at the same time the problem of equity. However being given the reduction of the public financing on the one hand and the number growing of students who wish to reach the higher education on the other hand, several universities impose increasingly high school fees what automatically bars the road with certain social categories. In spite of its aspect of segregation, even of violation of the humans’ right, this solution seems to allure more than one country. It is in particular adopted by the Americans universities which give the best results and are even classified leaders in the classification of the University Jiao Tong in Shanghai (On the 20 universities best classified by Shanghai, 17 are in the United States and only 2 in Europe). These is a choice which guarantees well efficiency but do not respect the principle of equity by creating universities for the rich person and others for the poor. Such a prospect will be possible if it allows the nation which adopts it to generate the human capital able to take up the challenges of the knowledge economy. Thus, it will produce richness which could be distributed in favour of the disadvantaged social layers, which will guarantee the respect of the principle of equity. Still is necessary it to set up a system of social regulation which allows to reach these results. The whole is to know if the higher education must play only the role of accelerator of the economic performance or also that of guarantor of social cohesion.

How to improve efficiency of the higher education without violating the principle of equity?

Which are the means to use to evaluate efficiency by taking of account the factor of equity?

Which are the methods to be founded for the financing of the higher education without imposing school fees to the deprived students?



2. Integration of the university in its economic environment

In all the cases, the higher education will remain the principal provider of human resources capable to propel the societies to the first rank on the international scene . However this objective is realizable only if the university is integrated into a modern and powerful economic fabric where the interaction of two worlds - education and industry start the engine of the innovation and the creativity. It is however obvious that everyone does not have its Silicon Valley even on a small scale, which minimizes the chance to see such an interaction occurring especially in the South countries.

Can the idea of centers of excellence, including a university or an institute of research and companies, go in these countries in spite of the economic fracture which separate them from the North countries?

Would the technological lack of infrastructure and the high level research laboratories prevent the concretization of such a project?

In this case, which solutions to adopt to take up the challenges of the knowledge society?

Shouldn't one consider infrastructures shared by several institutions in the North countries and the South countries where researchers on the two sides will work together?



3. Adaptation of the assets of students to the characteristics of the knowledge society

This alliance higher education - industry could succeed only if the students have skills necessary to the promotion of the knowledge society. A tool similar to which does use OECD in the PISA on secondary education would not be necessary to evaluate the quality of the assets of the students? The design of such a tool wouldn’t have to take into account the characteristics of the knowledge society to which higher education must prepare his students?

The technology which constitutes, through information and communication technologies, the engine of the knowledge economy, upset the world of research by its capacities of fast data processing, of simulation of the behaviours, of modelling of the most complex systems and of telecollaboration between teachers and students. Technology should also transform the mode of training of the students, become numerical with the discounted development of the cyberformation. This one does not seem yet able to carry out the wishes of the students to continue their high level studies without having to move in the places of formation. The era of the e-Learning is far from reaching its golden age and there remains way to make to really exploit all the possibilities that he offers in terms of teaching innovations, democratization of the higher education and reduction of cost.

How new educational technologies will be able to transform the old styles of teaching, training and research in the higher education?

Are they able to widen the access to this level of teaching and to reduce its cost?

Will they constitute a solution to the problem of financing of the studies for the social layers with low income?

How the authorities and the establishments can contribute to still make advance the cyberformation and to draw all the potential advantages from it?

Which are the new lessons specific to the knowledge society? Which traditional lessons always keep their relevance?

How can the modern university exert a role in the development of cognitive processes of the students?

How could we train people to think of the problems of the world?

How to encourage the future graduates to take part in initiatives aiming at reducing the social inequalities?

How to encourage the students to work within their future place of work for introducing the logic of the social responsibility for the companies?

How to encourage the students to take account of the cultural diversity of the world?



4. Globalization and international mobility

Globalization generated a movement without precedent of internationalization of the higher education. This one makes it possible to bring closer, thanks in particular to competition, the offer of the educational services of quality of those which require it, but it accentuates at the same time the social inequalities.

How to transform this phenomenon into a profitable collaboration between North and South with the place that it is an exit legalized for the brain drain?

In the case of the establishment of prestigious schools in the countries of the South, how to train competencies highly qualified to serve the interests of the host countries? and how to make benefit national higher educational systems from the experiment of the international institutions?

How does the international mobility of the students, the academics, the programs of teaching and the establishments reinforce the practice of the benchmarking? And how does it contribute to improve quality of the higher education?



5. Management modes of the higher education

The higher education would not able to take up the challenges of the knowledge society for which the needs are in perpetual evolution except if it is him also able to answer these needs quickly. What would not be possible without adopting modes of management ensuring efficiency, futuristic vision and reactivity based on new forms of governance. In the majority of the countries of the world the higher education remains a public property managed by the authorities. Those must, to improve quality of their management, to found the principles of flexibility, reactivity, continuous improvement, internal and external evaluation and accountability coupled of an academic and financial autonomy of the universities. After having developed for a long time in industry, the quality (the quality assurance, certifications, accreditations, audits) has been spread in the higher education for two decades. Agencies of quality evaluation were created in several countries and quality is now a concept to which many decision makers and managers refer. A documents as significant in Europe as the Declaration of Bologna or the official statements of Salamanque, of Prague, of Berlin and Bergen refer all there.

Which standards and which methods to use to evaluate the quality of the higher education?

Would the peer review be possible? Is they placed best to play the role of customers?

Which is the role to be played by other actors and in particular the students?

Which assessment to make about experiments and initiatives carried out by organizations like International Network for Quality insurance agencies in higher education (INQAAHE), International Association of University Presidents (IAUP), Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) in the United States?



6. Fundamental research and applied research

Good governance means orientation of scientific and technological research towards more innovation and creativity to serve two missions. On the one hand the generation of a new knowledge by the means of a fundamental research based on the free exploration of the unknown. In addition the implementation by the means of the applied research for an existing knowledge to generate new products. Two types of research whose importance for the knowledge society is recognized by everyone but which does not profit any more of the same interest in all the countries. The European Union, within the framework of the project of realization of the European Space of research, wants to carry from here 2010 its total effort of research to 3 % of its GDP but the researchers fear that it is with the detriment of fundamental research. The American industrialists do not favour a privatization of fundamental research because it is opposed to the logic of the market (no profitable being short-term and generating knowledge which is likely to become public goods). Many specialists insist on the question of "fair use" in particular in the field of the fundamental research, which must be based on the free exchanges and without borders.

How to found a certain balance between the financing of the applied research and that of fundamental research?

Is it necessary to proportion the financing according to the contribution of the research centers for the development of the knowledge economy? in this case which criteria using to evaluate this contribution?

How to build research projects cross-disciplinary?

How privatize fundamental research while preserving the character of public property of its results?

Is the current policy of reinforcement of the "intellectual property" required by the market compatible with the academic exchange of the ideas?

Is it necessary to make applied research the exclusive business of the companies or to be satisfied to imply them in its projects?

How to found a collaboration public-private able to preserve the interests of the companies and this of the society?

Which is the profile of the researcher of the knowledge society and how to train it?



7. Human resources management

In addition of research, the higher education has the mission of teaching to fill, which requires the highly qualified human resources capable of innovation spirit and creativity. A qualification not only academic but also pedagogic that organizations as the AIPU want to promote like guarantees of an effective teaching. However, in this field, the request largely exceeds the offer what explains the brain drain towards the private sector on the one hand and towards the rich countries on the other hand. To cure the first problem, the regulation applicable to the office plurality of two employments or the restrictions concerning the participation in private activities by researchers of the public sector is removed in the many OECD countries, but this benefits some privileged disciplines with the detriment of others. The second problem seems to affirm the proverb "the misfortune of the ones made the happiness of the others". The drain brain amounts with more than 20 000 per year in Africa according to the International Organization for the Migrations. This continent needs 150 000 foreign specialists each year , an annual expenditure of 4 billion USD.

How eradicate causes of the brain drain?

How to make to cure this problem?

Could the virtual participation facilitate a real and constant contribution of the Diaspora to the development of the origin countries?



8. The relation with the other components of the system of education and training

The higher education belongs to a process of education and of formation which has its origins in the pre-school one and continues throughout the life. Being with the interface of the education system and the labour market, the society assigns the role to him to take up the challenges of the knowledge economy. However to achieve such an ambitious goal it is necessary to consider the system of education and training as an indissociable whole which we must conceive by adopting a systemic approach. The education system is a production process of competencies whose output is a highly qualified human capital. This process comprises several components in dynamic interaction whose higher education constitutes only one element whose effectiveness depends largely on the performances of the components which it preceding. In this respect, secondary education is first interested. It must be conceived in order to satisfy the needs for the higher education as students of quality. This last is destined for better specifying its needs so that the curriculums of secondary education adapt to it. To face the stakes of the knowledge society, the development of the critical spirit and the capacity of innovation as well as the reinforcement of the cross-disciplinarity around the poles "languages" and "sciences and technology" would be necessary. However, this would not be possible that if the higher education manages to place at the disposal of secondary education professional teachers conscious of the complexity of the act of teaching and who have a general-purpose training, integrating the academic one and the pedagogic and taking into account the great diversity of the knowledge and its new transmission channels.

Is it necessary to encourage the orientation of the pupils towards the scientific and technological fields? Or is it necessary to make science and technology one of the components of the common base of knowledge for all the pupils? Which role to reserve for the other specialities?

Which role could play technological teaching in the preparation of the pupils to their future roles of effective actors in the knowledge society?

How to reform this type of teaching so that it discharges this mission?

How to structure secondary education and which curriculum to adopt to take up the challenges of the knowledge society?

Which is the profile of the teacher of the secondary in a knowledge society? Which are competencies of the teacher of tomorrow?

Which strategies of training of the teachers the university does it have to adopt?

How to make benefit teachers training systems from the results of the educational research?



The papers reporting an experiment or presenting a paper of research are to be sent in complete text before December 29, 2006.
The papers in format pdf (and a copy in Word format) are to be sent to the following address: cimqusef2007@amaquen.org ( with a copy to: amaquen@yahoo.fr)
They will comprise following information:

Name and first name of the author.

Title, function, institution of the author

Addresses, Tel. and e-mail of the author.

The papers, of eight pages, are to be submitted in Times New Roman 11 font, line space 1.5. On the first two pages, to mention:

Name of the congress (CIMQUSEF’2007).

Title of the paper.

Summary (1000 characters to the maximum) in English.

And on the first page alone: Name of the authors.



We draw finally your attention to the fact that only the papers accompanied by an inscription of at least one of the authors to the congress will be published in the proceedings.

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