The 2010 internatinal conference on cellular and molecular Biologyscience (CMBS2010)
|Event Date/Time: Feb 26, 2010||End Date/Time: Feb 28, 2010|
|Registration Date: Oct 30, 2010|
|Early Registration Date: Oct 30, 2010|
Noori Hassan Ghafour
University of Sulaimani/ College of Science Education
In this investigation work, Fatty acids components produced by Oak tree fruits were determined as a Fat content in acorn, pericarp and cuplules in the three Oak species (Q. aegilops subsp brantii, Q. libani and Q. infectoria). The plant samples were collected in Khamza Mountain Oak forest of Sulaimani / Kurdistan Region during October 2008. Exposed to air room temperature for drying and ground to fine powder by electric blender then stored in a plastic containers at 4Â°C.
In the preliminary step Fat detected from acorn, pericarp and cuplules by â€œSoxhletâ€ method and the various Fatty acids (saturated & unsaturated) were separated and determined by GLC. The amount of saturated Fatty acids in the acorn of the Q.aegilops subsp brantii, Q. libani and Q. infectoria were more than 25%, 7% and 18% while in the pericarp were more than 9%, 12% and 11% but in the cuplules were more than 9%, 10% and 10% respectively. The amount of unsaturated Fatty acids in the acorn of the Q. aegilops subsp brantii, Q. libani and Q. infectoria were more than70%,91% and 79% while in the pericarp were more than 87%, 84% and 81%, but in the cuplules were more than 87%, 88% and 84% respectively. The most abundant Fatty acids found in the acorn, pericarp and cuplules were Oleic followed by Lenoleic, except the cuplules of Q. infectoria, the most abundant Fatty acids was Lenoleic followed by Oleic.
Quercus spp, Soxhelt, GLC and petroleum spirit.
Acorn was a neglected food for people, livestock, domestic fowl and wildlife in California. Acorn is easy to collect, store and process. In addition to the nutritious nut and meal, acorn yields an oil comparable in quality and flavor with olive oil. The existing acorn market could be greatly expanded and provide new income for rural people (1). The Iraqi Kurdistan region area is about 73618 km . The total area of oak forest is about 15310 km (2). The parts of fruit of Q. aegilops contain curde Fat, acorn 3.855, pericarp 2.490 and cuplules 2.165 g/100g DM, while Q. infectoria contain (3.942, 2.766 and 1.568) and Q. libani contain (3.375, 1.754 and 1.464 g/100g DM) respectively (3). In Q. infectoria oil content was evaluated in different parts of acorn was different, in the cuplules 1.44%, pericarp 0.05% and seed 7.80%. It is clear that both saturated and unsaturated Fatty acids (FA) are present in seed oil, but the amount of unsaturated FA is higher 80% than saturated ones 20%, C is the most prevalent saturated and and C is the most common unsaturated FA (4). The most abundant FA found in acorn oil of Q.ilex and Q. fagina were oleic 60%, and linoleic 27% which together constituted more than 80% of the total FA. Also, a high amount of palmitic acid was found about 14%, where as stearic and Linolenic concentration was low about 2%. The unsaturated ratio was relatively high 5:1, and the relatively high content of linoleic acid makes acorn oil especially prone to oxidation. However, this profile may have nutritional (5). The highest level of saturated FA found in Q. ilex, the lowest level was found in Q. aegilops subsp brantii, Q. libani and Q. trogana (6). Q. robuv contain high amounts of unsaturated FA (more than 80%) such as linoleic 43.38%, oleic 30.25% and alpha linoleic acid 4.8% (7). Acorn fruit oils from two species of Oak, Q. rotundifolia (holm-Oak) and Q. suber (cork-oak) were extracted. The main FA in both fruits species was oleic acid 65%, followed by linoleic acid about 16.5-17% and palmitic acid about 12.1-13.4% and the oleic acid in the acorn pulp is 54.4-70.6% and lenoleic acid is 10.8-20.7% (8). Fatty acid profile of Q. rotundifolia and Q. suber oils are similar to olive oil while the oil from Q. pyrenaila acorn is more unsaturated (9). There are data on the anti oxidative action of some acorn components (10).
The aim of this investigation was to determine the percentage of Fatty acid contents in various parts of Oak fruits for the three native of Oak species in Iraqi Kurdistan region to commercialize them in future and provide new income for rural people.
Materials & Methods:
Fresh sample from each species of (Quercus aegilops subsp bantii, Q. infectoria and Q. libani) were collected randomly during ripening period in October 2008 in Khamza Mountain forest. After sample collecting, samples were prepared for analysis and investigation in Botany Research Laboratory/ Biology Department/ College of Science/ University of Sulaimani. Acorn freed from cuplules and pericarps and exposed to air for air drying at room temperature and ground to fine powder by electric blender, then stored in plastic containers at 4Â°C. Each part (acorn, pericarp and cuplules) differently prepared.
Crude fat content is determined with (Soxhlet) by extracting the fat from the sample using a solvent (petroleum spirit), then determining the weight of the fat recovered. The sample is contained in a porous thimble that allows the solvent to completely cover the sample. The thimble is contained in an extraction apparatus that enables the solvent to be recycled over and over again. This extends the contract time between the solvent and the sample and allows it to dissolve all the fat contained in the sample. In order to the solvent to thoroughly penetrate the sample, it is necessary for the sample to be as finely comminuted as possible. Rinse all glassware with petroleum spirit, drain and dry in an oven at 102Â°C for 30 minutes and cool in a desiccator, accurately weight 5g of samples into the thimble. Dry the sample in an oven at heated at 75Â°C for 90 minutes; allow the sample to cool in a desiccator. Take the piece of cotton wool and place it in the top of the thimble, insert the thimble in a Soxhlet extractor, accurately weight a clean dry 150 ml round bottom flash and put about 90 ml of petroleum spirit into the flask, assemble the extraction unit over either an electric heating mantle or a water bath, heat the solvent in the flask until it boils. Adjust the heat source so that solvent drips from the condenser into the sample chamber at the rate of about 6drops/sec, continue the extraction for 6-8 hours. Then remove the heat source and detach the extractor and condenser. Then drain the solvent from the extractor in the flask. Remove the thimble from extractor. Replace the flask on the heat source and evaporate the solvent (The solvent may be distilled and recovered by rotary evaporator). Place the flask in an oven at 102Â°C and dry the contents until a constant weight is reached (1-2 hours), and cool the flask in a desiccator (11).
Gas liquid-chromatography [GLC] analysis were performed using a (Hewlett packed, model 5710A), connected with a computer, model (3380-A-HP). The analysis of oils were run on (GLC) using the separation column (17chromo sorb w 3% OV, length 6ft, diameter 4mm), provide with Diethyl Glycol Succinate (DEGS), Carrier gas, nitrogen as an inert gas adjusted to a velocity 50ml/min, using Flame Ionization Detector (FID), flow rate of hydrogen to the air 250ml/min, the oven temperature program was 190Â°C, quadruple temperature 140Â°C, the rate temperature increasing 8Â°C/min, injector port 200Â°C and detector 250Â°C, average velocity of nitrogen and hydrogen gas 0, 30 and 24 ml/min respectively (after detecting Fatty acids as peak compared with the standard under the same condition of the detecting on the base of Retention time).
The percentage of Fatty acids (mol) computed by the area under the curve using the computer that connected with (GLC) by the following equation (12):
Results & Discussion:
The average value of the oil contents, respective Fatty acids profile of the acorn samples of Quercus aegilops subsp brantii, Q. libani and Q. infectoria are shown in Table (1). The Q. aegilops subsp brantii contains saturated Fatty acids (Myristic C14 9.66842%, Palmitic C16 0.09281%, Stearic C18 15.31943%, while acorn of Q. libani contains the following saturated Fatty acids (Palmitic C16 6.02123% and Stearic C18 1.62037%) and the acorn of Q. infectoria contains (Palmitic C16 10.76584% and Stearic C18 7.97149%). The highest level of saturated Fatty acid found in the acorn of Q. aegilops subsp brantii and the lowest in the acorn of Q. libani. The Fatty acid (Myristic C14) found in the acorn of Q. aegilops subsp brantii but not found in the acorn of the other two species.
The amount of saturated Fatty acids in the acorn of Q. aegilops subsp brantii, Q. libani and Q. infectoria were more than 25%, 7% and 18% respectively. The acorn of Q. aegilops subsp brantii contains also unsaturated Fatty acids (Palmitoliec C16:1 2.16819%, Oleic C18:1 54.87830% and Linoleic C18:2 13.18114%) while the acorn of Q. libani contains (Palmitoliec C16:1 2.21213%, Oleic C18:1 74.17382%, Lenoleic C18:2 13.52102% and Linolenic C18:3 1.33810%) and the acorn of Q. infectoria contains (Palmitolic C16:1 0.38752%, Oleic C18:1 58.63947%, Linoleic 18:2 19.53543% and Linolenic C18:3 0.50581%). The highest level of unsaturated Fatty acid found in the acorn of Q. libani and the lowest level found in the acorn of Q. infectoria. The Fatty acid Linoleic C18:3 found in the acorn of Q. libani and Q. infectoria but not found in the acorn of Q. aegilops subsp brantii. The amount of unsaturated Fatty acids in the acorn of Q. aegilop, Q. libani and Q. infectoria were more than 70%, 91% and 79% respectively.
The most abundant Fatty acid found in the acorn oil of Q. aegilops subsp brantii, Q. infectoria and Q. libani were oleic 54.87%, 58.63% and 74.17% followed by Linoleic 13.18114%, 19.53545 and 13.52102% respectively.
Table (1): Fatty acid percentage in the Acorn of oak fruit (Quercus Spp)
Fatty acids %
(F.A) Quercus Spp
(brantii) Q. libani Q. infectoria
Saturated F. A
C16 0.09281 6.02123 10.76584
C18 15.31943 1.62037 7.97149
C16:1 2.16189 2.21213 0.38752
C18:1 54.8783 74.17382 58.63947
C18:2 13.18114 13.52102 19.53545
C18:3 1.3381 0.50581
The Fatty acid percentages in the pericarp of the of the Q. aegilops subsp brantii, Q. libani and Q. infectoria are shown in Table (2). The pericarp oils content (saturated) of the Q. aegilops subsp brantii, Q. libani and Q. infectoria were Palmetic C16 7.49694%, 7.05019% and 11.00735%, and Stearic C18 1.83509%, 5.91248% and 0.97503% respectively. The highest level of saturated Fatty acids and the lowest one found in the pericarp of Q. infectoria. The amount of saturated Fatty acids in the pericarp of Q. aegilops, Q. libani and Q. infectoria were more than 9%, 12% and 11% respectively.
Also the pericarp of Q. aegilops subsp brantii, Q. libani and Q. infectoria contains unsaturated Fatty acids which are (Palmitoleic C16:1 0.52110%, 0.02797% and 1.18635%; Oleic C18:1 71.85134%, 62.21014% and 55.64217%; Linoleic C18:2 15.62909%, 20.74960% and 24.84940%; Linolenic C18:3 0.19838, 1.29216% and 0.03906%) respectively. The highest level of unsaturated Fatty acid found in the pericarp of Q. aegilops subsp brantii and the lowest level found in the pericarp of Q. libani. The amount of unsaturated Fatty acids in the pericarp of Q. aegilop, Q. libani and Q. infectoria were more than 87%, 84% and 81% respectively.
The most abundant Fatty acid found in the pericarp oil of Q. aegilops subsp brantii, Q. libani and Q. infectoria were oleic 71.85134%, 62.21014% and 55.64217% followed by linoleic 15.62909%, 20.74960% and 24.84940% respectively.
Table (2): Fatty acid percentage in the Pericarp of oak fruit (Quercus Spp):
Fatty acids %
(F.A) Quercus Spp
(brantii) Q. libani Q. infectoria
Saturated F. A
C16 7.49694 7.05019 11.00735
C18 1.83509 5.91248 0.97503
C16:1 0.52110 0.02797 1.18635
C18:1 71.85134 62.21014 55.64217
C18:2 15.62909 20.74690 24.84940
C18:3 0.19838 1.29216 0.03906
Table (3) shows the Fatty acid percentages in the cupules of Q. aegilops subsp brantii, Q. libani and Q. infectoria. The cupules oil content (saturated oil) of Q. aegilops subsp brantii, Q. libani and Q. infectoria were Palmitic C16 7.69740%, 9.58681% and 7.56767% and Stearic C18 2.19406, 0.51266% and 3.19821% respectively. The highest and the lowest level of saturated Fatty acid found in the cupules of Q. libani. The amount of saturated Fatty acids in the cupules of Q. aegilops subsp brantii, Q. libani and Q. infectoria were more than 9%, 10% and 10% respectively.
Also the cupules of Q. aegilops subsp brantii, Q. libani and Q. infectoria contain unsaturated Fatty acids which are Oleic C18:1 78.35433%, 65.40453% and 38.08633%; Linoleic C18:2 8.38431%, 20.37657% and 45.53220%; Linolenic C18:3 0.18679%, 0.57379% and 0.67121%. Besides those unsaturated Fatty acids the cupules of Q. aegilops and Q. libani contains Palmitoleic C16:1 0.35507% and 1.97659% respectively. The highest and lowest levels of unsaturated Fatty acids found in the cupules of Q. aegilops subsp brantii. The amount of unsaturated Fatty acids in the cupules of Q. aegilops subsp brantii, Q. libani and Q. infectoria were more than 87%, 88% and 84% respectively.
The most abundant Fatty acid found in the cupules oil of Q. aegilops subsp brantii and Q. libani were Oleic 78.35433% and 65.40483% followed by Linoleic 8.38431% and 20.37657% respectively, but the most abundant Fatty acid found in cupules of Q. infectoria was Leneleic 45.53220% followed by Oleic 38.08633%.
Table (3): Fatty acid percentage in the Cuplule of oak fruit (Quercus Spp)
Fatty acids %
(F.A) Quercus Spp
(brantii) Q. libani Q. infectoria
Saturated F. A
C16 7.69710 9.58681 7.56767
C18 2.19406 0.51266 3.19821
C16:1 0.35507 1.97659
C18:1 78.35433 65.40483 38.08633
C18:2 8.38431 20.37657 45.53220
C18:3 0.18679 0.57379 0.67121
Some studies confirmed the presence of Fatty acids in different Oak species. The unsaturated Fatty acids were present more than 80% and saturated ones 20% (4, 7). The most abundant saturated Fatty acids were present Palmitic followed by Stearic while the unsaturated Fatty acids were persent Oleic followed by Lenoleic (4, 8).
Oak of different species produce acorn that vary in nutritional quality (13). Genotypes have a different ability to accumulate nutrients in the different seed parts. There are existed differences between genotype, nutrient contents of plant seeds depend on physiological factors caused by mobilization from the soil, uptake by the roots, translocation and redistribution within the plant, import and deposition in the seeds (14). Age of some tissue, and environmental condition such as insulation, property of the soil and altitude may be considered to influence the chemical composition of the plants (15). Acorn nutrient content values are quite variable and acorn size is very variable according to the trees and years and it has been reported to be affected by several factors such as the tree age, years and weather condition (16).
1- David A. Bain brige., (1986). Use of acorns for food in California: past, present, future. Presented at the symposium on Multiple- use Management of Californiaâ€™s Hardwood, November 12-14, San Luis Obispo, California.
2- Talib, J. T., (2004). The political and geographical study of Iraqi Kurdistan region. PhD dissertation, university of Sulaimani, College of Human.
3- Rada, Meran Madhar., (2009). Determination of chemical compounds in Oak fruits (Quercus Spp.) in Khamza mauntain oak forest in Sulaimani/ Kurdistan region/ Iraq. MSc Thesis, university of Sulaimani/ College of Science.
4- Alemezadah, I., Vssoughi, M., and Maghsood, V. (2000). An investigation of chemical and physical properties of Kordstan (Iran) acorn. J of Agri. Sci. Tech, (2): 225-228.
5- Camacho, M. L., Alcaida, I.V., and Vicario, I. M., (2004). Acorn (Quercus spp) fruit lipids, saponifiable, unsaponifiable factors: a detailed study. J. of Amer. oil chemist Soc, 81 (5): 447-453.
6- Ã–zcan, T., (2007). Characterization of Turkish Quercus L. taxa based on fatty acid component of acorn. J. of Amer. oil chemist. Soc., 84 (7).
7- Salajpal, K., Karolyi, D., Dikic, M., Kantura, V., Kis, G., and Sinjeri, Z., (2008). Influence of acorn intake on blood lipid profile and longisimus muscle characteristic of black Salvonian pig. Acta agric. Slovenica, supplement, (2): 99-105.
8- Lopes, I.M.G., and Bernardo-Gil., (2005). Characterization of acorn oils extracted by hexane and by supercritical carbon dioxide. Europe. J. of Lipid Sci. and Tech., 107 (1): 12-19.
9- Suzana Ferreira- Dias., Dina G. Valente and Jose M.F. Ahrue., (2003). Pattern recognition of acorns from different Quercus species based on oil content and fatty acid profile Grasses, Aceites Vol. 54. Fasc. 4: 384-391.
10- Rakiae, S., Povrenoviae, D., Maletiae, R., and Å½ivkoviae, M., (2005). Drying of the aqueous extract of acorn (Quercus robur) in a spout-fluid Bed. J of Agric. Sci. 50 (2): 173-182.
11- Zou, M. L., Moughan, P. J., Awati, A., and Livesey, G., (2007). Accuracy of the Atwater factors and related food energy conversion factors with Law-fat, high-fiber diets, when energy intake is reduced spontaneously. Amer. J. of clinical Nutr., 86 (6).
12- Harborne, J. B., (1984). Phytochemical methods (a guide to modern technique for plant analysis) Chapman Hall, London.
13- Ober, H. K., and Minogne, P.J., (2008). Maniging oaks to produce food for wildlife. University of Florida, the institute of food and Agric. Scie htt://www.edi-lfas.ufl.edu :pp5.
14- Grusak, M. A; and Dellapenna., (1999). Improving the nutrient composition of plants to enhance human nutrition and health. Annual review of plant, physio. and plant molecular Bio., (50): 133-161.
15- Schleppi, P., Toble, L., Bucher, J. B., and Wyttenbach, B., (2000). Multivariate interpretation of the foliar chemical composition of Norway Spruce (Pecea abies). Plant soil (219): 251-262.
16- Daza, A., Rey, A. I., Lopez- Carrasco, C., and Lopez- Bote, C.J. (2008). Influence of acorn size on growth performance, Carcass quality and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular fat from Iberian pigs affected in confinement. Spanish J. of Agri. Res 6(2): 230-235.