Electrical Generators and Excitation Systems: Selection, Applications, Operation, Diagnostic Testing

Venue: Global Innovative Campus

Location: Edmonton, AB, Canada

Event Date/Time: Oct 10, 2012 End Date/Time: Oct 12, 2012
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Maximum efficiency, reliability, and longevity of the various types of generators, exciters, voltage regulators, and protective systems are of great concern to many industries. These objectives can only be achieved by understanding the characteristics, selection criteria, common problems and repair techniques, preventive and predictive maintenance. This seminar is a MUST for anyone who is involved in the selection, applications, or maintenance of generators. It provides the latest in technology. The seminar covers how this equipment operates and provides guidelines and rules that must be followed for a successful operation. Their basic design, operating characteristics, specification, selection criteria, advanced fault detection techniques, critical components, refurbishment, as well as all maintenance issues are covered in detail.


To provide a comprehensive understanding of the various types of generators, exciters, voltage regulators, and protective systems. Participants will be able to specify select, commission and maintain this equipment for their applications. To achieve reduced capital, operating and maintenance costs along with increase in efficiency.


Engineers of any discipline, managers, technician, technologists, and other technical


Included in the seminar a book titled “Electrical Equipment Handbook” (600 pages) published by McGraw-Hill in 2003 and a manual. Both the book and the manual are authored by the instructor.


Faculty: Philip Kiameh, University of Toronto/Ontario Power Generation

Day I

Fundamentals of Electric Systems

1.0 Capacitors
2.0 Current and Resistance
3.0 The Magnetic Field
3.1 Ampère’s Law
3.2 Magnetic Field in a Solenoid
4.0 Faraday’s Law of Induction
5.0 Lenz’s Law
6.0 Inductance
7.0 Alternating Currents
8.0 Three-Phase System
8.1 Three-Phase Connections
8.2 Power in Three-Phase Systems

Introduction to Machinery Principles

1.0 Electric Machines and Transformers
2.0 Common Terms and Principles
3.0 The Magnetic Field
3.1 Production of a Magnetic Field
4.0 Magnetic Behavior of Ferromagnetic Materials
4.1 Energy Losses in a Ferromagnetic Core
5.0 Faraday’s Law –Induced Voltage From a Magnetic Field Changing with Time
6.0 Core Loss Values
7.0 Permanent Magnets
8.0 Production of Induced Force on a Wire
9.0 Induced Voltage on a Conductor Moving in a Magnetic Field

AC Machine Fundamentals

1.0 The Rotating Magnetic Field
1.0 Proof of The Rotating Magnetic Field Flux Concept
1.1 The Relationship between Electrical Frequency and The Speed of Magnetic Field Rotation
1.2 Reversing The Direction of the Magnetic Field Rotation
2.0 The Induced Voltage in AC Machines
2.0 The Induced Voltage in a Coil on a Two-Pole Stator
2.1 The Induced Voltage in a Three-Phase Set of Coils
2.3 The RMS Voltage in a Three-Phase Stator
3.0 The Induced Torque in a Three-Phase Machine
4.0 Winding Insulation in AC Machines
5.0 AC Machine Power Flow and Losses

Synchronous Machines

1.0 Physical Description 2.0 Pole Pitch: Electrical Degrees
3.0 Airgap and Magnetic Circuit of a Synchronous Machine
4.0 Synchronous Machine Windings
5.0 Field Excitation
5.1 Rotating Rectifier Excitation
5.2 Series Excitation
6.0 No-Load and Short-Circuit Values
7.0 Torque Tests
7.1 Speed-Torque Characteristic
7.2 Pull-In Torque
7.3 Pull-Out Torque
8.0 Excitation of a Synchronous Machine
9.0 Machine Losses
9.1 Windage and Friction Loss
9.2 Core Losses
9.3 Stray-Load Loss
9.4 Armature Conductor Loss
9.5 Excitation Loss

Synchronous Generators

1.0 Synchronous Generator Construction
2.0 The Speed of Rotation of A Synchronous Generator
1.0 The Internal Generated Voltage of a Synchronous Generator
2.0 The Equivalent Circuit of a Synchronous Generator
3.0 The Phasor Diagram of a Synchronous Generator
4.0 Power and Torque in Synchronous Generators
5.0 The Synchronous Generator Operating Alone
5.1 The Effect of Load Change on a Synchronous Generator Operating Alone
6.0 Parallel Operation of AC Generators
6.1 The Conditions Required for Paralleling
6.2 The General Procedure for Paralleling Generators
6.3 Frequency-Power and Voltage-Reactive Power Characteristics of a Synchronous Generator
7.0 Operation of Generators in Parallel With Large Power Systems
8.0 Synchronous Generator Ratings
8.1 The Voltage, Speed, and Frequency Ratings
8.2 Apparent Power and Power-Factor Ratings
9.0 Synchronous Generator Capability Curves
10.0 Short-Time Operation and Service Factor

Day II

Generator Components, Auxiliaries and Excitation

1.0 Introduction
2.0 The Rotor
2.1 Rotor Winding
2.2 Rotor End Rings
2.3 Wedges and Dampers
2.4 Sliprings, Brushgear and Shaft Grounding
2.5 Fans
2.6 Rotor and Threading Alignment
2.7 Vibration
2.8 Bearings and Seals
2.9 Size and Weight
3.0 Turbine-Generator Components: The Stator
3.1 Stator Core
3.2 Core Frame
3.3 Stator Winding
3.4 End Winding Support
3.5 Electrical Connections and Terminals
3.6 Stator Winding Cooling Components
3.7 Hydrogen Cooling Components
3.8 Stator Casing
4.0 Cooling Systems
4.1 Hydrogen Cooling
4.2 Hydrogen Cooling Systems
5.0 Shaft Seals and Seal Oil Systems
5.1 Thrust Type Seal
5.2 Journal Type Seal
5.3 Seal Oil System
6.0 Stator Winding Water Cooling Systems
7.0 Other Cooling Systems
8.0 Excitation
8.1 AC Excitation Systems
8.2 Exciter Transient Performance
8.3 The Pilot Exciter
8.4 The Main Exciter
8.5 Exciter Performance Testing
8.6 Pilot Exciter Protection
8.7 Brushless Excitation Systems
8.8 The Rotating Armature Main Exciter
9.0 The Voltage Regulator
9.1 Background
9.2 System Description
9.3 The Regulator
9.4 Auto Follow-up Circuit
9.5 Manual Follow-up
9.6 AVR Protection
9.7 The Digital AVR
9.8 Excitation Control
9.9 Rotor Current Limiter
9.10 Overfluxing Limit
10.0 The Power System Stabilizer
11.0 Characteristics of Generator Exciter Power Systems (GEP)
11.1 Excitation System Analysis
12.0 Generator Operation
12.1 Running-up to Speed
12.2 Open Circuit Conditions and Synchronizing
12.3 The Application of a Load
12.4 Capability Chart
12.5 Neutral Grounding
12.6 Rotor Torque

Generator Performance Parameters, Excitation Systems, Voltage Regulators, and Protective Systems

1.0 Generator Performance Parameters
1.1 Industry Standard
1.2 Ratings
1.3 Power Factor
1.4 Voltage
1.5 Short-Circuit Ratio
1.6 Efficiency
1.7 Parametric Effects
1.8 Instrument Transformers.
2.0 Excitation Systems
2.1 Exciter Types
3.0 Voltage Regulators
3.1 Manual Control
3.2 Automatic Control
3.3 Auxiliary Control Functions
3.4 Excitation System Stabilizer or Transient Gain Reduction
3.5 Underexcitation Limiter
3.6 Overexcitation Limiter and Protection
3.7 Volts-Per-Hertz Limiter and Protection
3.8 Off-Line Excitation Limiter and Protection
3.9 VAR and Power Factor Controllers
3.10 Excitation Performance Parameters.
4.0 Generator Protection
4.1 Protective Relays
4.2 Differential Current Protection
4.3 Stator Overcurrent Protection
4.4 Negative Sequence Current Protection
4.5 Stator Ground Fault Protection
4.6 Field Ground Protection
4.7 Loss of Excitation Protection
4.8 Motoring protection.

Double-Feed Generators

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Basic System Configuration
3.0 Equivalent Circuit for the Brushless Double-fed Machine
4.0 Parameter Extraction
5.0 Generator Operation
6.0 Converter Rating
7.0 Machine Control
8.0 Conclusions

Generator Main Connections

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Isolated Phase Bus Bar Circulatory Currents
3.0 System Description

Performance and Operation of Generators

1.0 Generator Systems 1.1 Excitation
1.2 Hydrogen Cooling
1.3 Cooling of The Stator Conductors
1.4 Hydrogen Seals
2.0 Condition Monitoring
2.2 Temperature Monitoring –Thermocouples
2.4 Hydrogen Gas Analysis
2.5 Hydrogen Dew Point Monitoring and Control
2.6 Vibration Monitoring
3.0 Operational Limitations
3.1 Temperatures
3.2 Hydrogen leakage
4.0 Fault Conditions
4.1 Stator Ground (Earth) Faults
4.2 Stator Phase-to-Phase Faults
4.3 Stator Interturn Faults
4.4 Negative Phase Sequence Currents
4.5 Loss of Generator Excitation
4.6 Pole Slipping
4.7 Rotor Faults


Generator Surveillance and Testing

1.0 Generator Operational Checks (Surveillance and Monitoring)
1.1 Major Overhaul (every 8-10 years)
2.0 Generator Diagnostic Testing
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Stator Insulation Tests
2.3 DC Tests For Stator and Rotor Windings Index
3.0 Insulation Resistance and Polarization Index
3.1 Test Setup and Performance
3.2 Interpretation
4.0 DC Hipot Test
4.1 High Voltage and Step Ramp Tests
5.0 AC Tests for Stator Windings
5.1 Dissipation Factor and Tip-Up Tests
5.1.1 Tip-Up Test
5.1.2 Stator Turn Insulation Surge Test
6.0 Synchronous Machine Rotor Windings
6.1 Open Circuit Test For Shorted Turns
6.2 Air Gap Search Coil For Detecting Turns
6.3 Impedance Test With Rotor Installed
6.4 Detecting the Location of Shorted Turns With Rotor Removed
6.4.1 Low Voltage AC Test
6.4.2 Low Voltage DC Test (Voltage-Drop Test)
6.4.3 Field Winding Ground Fault Detectors
6.4.4 Surge Testing For Rotor Shorted Turns and Ground
7.0 Partial Discharge Tests
5.0 Off-Line Conventional pd Test
5.0.1 Test Setup and Performance
5.0.2 Interpretation
5.1 On-Line Conventional pd Test
8.0 Low Core Flux Test (EL-CID)
9.0 Mechanical Tests
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Stator Windings Tightness Check
9.3 Stator Winding Side Clearance Check
9.4 Core Laminations Tightness Check (knife test)
9.5 Visual Techniques
10.0 Groundwall Insulation
11.0 Rotor Winding
12.0 Turn Insulation
13.0 Slow Wedges and Bracing
14.0 Stator and Rotor Cores

Generator Inspection and Maintenance

1.0 On-Load Maintenance and Monitoring
1.1 Stator
1.2 Rotor
1.3 Excitation System
2.0 Off-Load Maintenance
2.1 Stator Internal Work
2.2 Stator External Work
2.3 Rotor
2.4 Slip Rigs and Brush Gear
2.5 Exciter and Pilot Exciter
2.6 Rectifier
2.7 Field Switch
2.8 Automatic Voltage Regulator
2.9 Supervisory and Protection Equipment
3.0 Generator Testing
3.1 Insulation Testing
3.2 Testing the stator core
3.3 Stator Coolant Circuit Testing
3.4 Hydrogen Loss Test
3.5 Rotor Winding Tests

Generator Operational Problems, and Refurbishment Options

1.0 Typical Generator Operational Problems
1.1 Shorted Turns and Field Grounds
1.2 Thermal Sensitivity
1.3 Contamination
1.4 Collector, Bore Copper and Connection Problems
1.4.1 Copper Distortion
1.5 Forging Concerns
1.6 Retaining Rings
1.7 Misoperation
2.0 Generator Rotor Reliability and Life Expectancy
2.1 Generator Experience
3.0 Generator Rotor Refurbishment
3.1 Generator Rotor Rewind
4.0 Types of Insulation
5.0 Generator Rotor Modifications, Upgrades and Uprates
6.0 High Speed Balancing
7.0 Flux Probe Test

Bearings And Lubrication

1.0 Types of Bearings
1.1 Ball and Roller Bearings
1.2 Stresses During Rolling Contact
2.0 Statistical Nature of Bearing Life
3.0 Materials and Finish
4.0 Sizes of Bearings
5.0 Types of Roller Bearings
6.0 Thrust Bearings
7.0 Lubrication
7.1 The Viscosity of Lubricants
7.1.1 Viscosity Units
7.1.2 Significance of Viscosity
7.1.3 Flow Through Pipes
7.1.4 Variation of Viscosity With Temperature and Pressure Temperature Effect Viscosity Index Effects of Pressure on Viscosity
7.2 Non-Newtonian Fluids
7.2.1 Greases
7.3 VI Improved Oils
7.4 Oils at Low Temperatures
7.5 Variation of Lubricant Viscosity With Use
7.5.1 Oxidation Reactions
7.5.2 Physical Reactions
7.6 Housing and Lubrication
7.6.1 Lubrication and Antifriction Bearings

Used Oil Analysis

1.0 Proper Lube Oil Sampling Technique
2.0 Test Description and Significance
2.1 Visual and Sensory Inspection
2.2 Chemical and Physical Tests
2.2.1 Water Content
2.2.2 Viscosity
2.2.3 Emission Spectrographic Analysis
2.2.4 Infrared Analysis
2.2.5 Total Base Number
2.2.6 Total Acid Number
2.2.7 Particle Count
2.3 Summary

Vibration Analysis

1.0 The Application of Sine Waves to Vibration
2.0 Multimass Systems
3.0 Resonance
4.0 Logarithms and Decibels (db)
5.0 The Use of Filtering
6.0 Vibration Instrumentation
6.1 Displacement Transducer (proximity probe)
6.2 Velocity Transducer
6.3 Acceleration Transducer
6.4 Transducer Selection
7.0 Time Domain
8.0 Frequency Domain
9.0 Machinery Example
10.0 Vibration Analysis
10.1 Vibration Causes
10.2 Forcing Frequency Causes
10.3 Unbalance
10.4 Misalignment
10.5 Mechanical Looseness
10.6 Bearing Defects
10.7 Gear Defects
10.8 Oil Whirl
10.9 Blade or Vane Problems
10.10 Electric Motor Defects
10.11 Uneven Loading
10.12 Drive-Shaft Torsion
11.0 Resonant Frequency
12.0 Vibration Severity

Power Station Electrical Systems and Design Requirements

1.0 Introduction
2.0 System Requirements
2.1 Grid Criteria
2.2 Safety Requirements
3.0 Electrical System Description
3.1 The Generator Main Output System
3.2 Electrical Auxiliary Systems
3.3 Type of Stations
4.0 System Performance
4.1 Unit Start-up
4.2 Plant Requirements
4.3 Synchronizing to the Grid
4.4 Synchronizing the Unit to the Station
4.5 Shutdown and Power Trip
4.6 Controlled Shutdown
4.7 Power Trip
4.8 The Effects of Loss of Grid Supplies
5.0 Power Plant Outages and Faults
6.0 Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) Systems
6.1 Introduction
7.0 DC Systems
7.1 Introduction
7.2 DC System Functions
7.3 Mission Time of DC Systems

Power Station Protective Systems

1.0 Introduction
2.0 Design Criteria
3.0 Generator Protection
3.1 Stator Ground (Earth) Faults –Low Impedance Grounding
3.2 Stator Ground Faults –High Resistance Grounding
3.3 Stator Phase-to-Phase Faults
4.0 DC Tripping Systems
4.1 Logic Diagram

Frequently Asked Questions

2.0 Introduction to Machinery Principles
3.0 Interconnection With the Grid
4.0 AC Machine Fundamentals
5.0 Synchronous Generators
6.0 Generator Components, Auxiliaries, and Excitation

After Attending This Course You Will Be Able To:
Learn about various types of generators, exciters, voltage regulators, and protective systems.

Understand diagnostic testing and inspection, vibration analysis, advanced fault detection techniques, critical components, and common failure modes.

Study selection criteria, refurbishment, commissioning requirements, predictive and preventive maintenance, reliability, testing and cost

Discover the maintenance required to minimize their operating cost and maximize their
efficiency, reliability and longevity


Philip Kiameh, M.A.Sc., B.Eng., D.Eng., P.Eng. (Canada) has been a teacher at University of Toronto, Canada for 20 years. During this period, he taught courses and seminars to working engineers and professionals around the world. He wrote 6 books for working engineers. Four of them have been published by McGraw-Hill, New York.

Prof. Philip Kiameh performed research on power generation equipment with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at their Chalk River and Whiteshell Nuclear Research Laboratories. He also has more than 27 years of practical engineering experience with Ontario Power Generation (formerly, Ontario Hydro - the largest electric utility in North America). While in Ontario Hydro, Prof. Philip Kiameh worked as Training Manager, Engineering Supervisor, System Responsible Engineer and Design Engineer. During this period, he was the manager of a section that provided training for the staff at the power stations. This training covered all the equipment and systems used in power stations. Philip was also responsible for the operation, maintenance, diagnostics, and testing of gas turbines, steam turbines, generators, motors, transformers, inverters, valves, pumps, compressors, instrumentation and control systems. Further, his responsibilities included designing, engineering, diagnosing equipment problems and recommending solutions to repair deficiencies and improve system performance, supervising engineers, setting up preventive maintenance programs, writing Operating and Design Manuals, and commissioning new equipment.

Professor Philip Kiameh was awarded his Bachelor of Engineering Degree "with distinction" from Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. He also received a Master of Applied Science in Engineering (M.A.Sc.) from the University of Ottawa, Canada. He is also a member of the Association of Professional Engineers in the province of Ontario, Canada.


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